Kappa/lambda in lymphoma

Anti-kappa and anti-lambda detect surface light chain immunoglobulins on normal and neoplastic B-cells in human lymphoid tissue.  In normal lymphoid tissue the kappa and lambda cell ratio is approximately 2:1, but values in excess of that ratio indicate monoclonality caused by either a lymphoproliferative disorder or neoplasia such as lymphoma.

The double stain antibody provided by Biocare’s MACH 2 Double Stain Detection Kit (DAB and Fast Red) allows the investigator to simultaneously see both kappa (M) (brown) and lambda (P) (red) on the same tissue section, thus allowing the end-user a more accurate and easier assessment of both stains. Image analysis of a digitally scanned slide provides rapid highly accurate kappa and lambda cell counts.  The resulting whole slide section determination of a kappa/lambda ratio enables easier diagnosis of disease.

Dual multiplexed IHC staining of lymphoma with kappa and lambda dual staining

Dual stained lymphoma with kappa (M) (brown) and lambda (P) (red) on the same tissue section (courtesy Biocare)

Lambda cells identified with histopathology image analysis

Lambda cells can be identified and quantitified across an entire whole slide section

Kappa cells measured with either Aperio or Visiopharm or ImageJ using color deconvolution and cell counting analysis

Kappa cells can also be quantitated, using color deconvolution followed by image analysis on a cell basis

It needs to be noted that the kappa/lambda ratio in the image analyzed is 4.25 which substantially exceeds the normal ratio of 2:0.  Analysis of a whole section provides more statistically meaningful results than just an analysis of a single image, or a random manual count by a pathologist.

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