Anti-kappa and anti-lambda detect surface light chain immunoglobulins on normal and neoplastic B-cells in human lymphoid tissue. In normal lymphoid tissue the kappa and lambda cell ratio is approximately 2:1, but values in excess of that ratio indicate monoclonality caused by either a lymphoproliferative disorder or neoplasia such as lymphoma.
The double stain antibody provided by Biocare’s MACH 2 Double Stain Detection Kit (DAB and Fast Red) allows the investigator to simultaneously see both kappa (M) (brown) and lambda (P) (red) on the same tissue section, thus allowing the end-user a more accurate and easier assessment of both stains. Image analysis of a digitally scanned slide provides rapid highly accurate kappa and lambda cell counts. The resulting whole slide section determination of a kappa/lambda ratio enables easier diagnosis of disease.
It needs to be noted that the kappa/lambda ratio in the image analyzed is 4.25 which substantially exceeds the normal ratio of 2:0. Analysis of a whole section provides more statistically meaningful results than just an analysis of a single image, or a random manual count by a pathologist.