We have a number of active projects in quantitation in toxicologic pathology. With increasing regulatory pressure to deliver quantitative data, we are always looking for new ways to have the computer help us measure lesions and abnormalitities in tissues. Some common tox pathology changes that can be measured with H&E or special staining protocols:
- Liver: Hepatocellular hypertrophy, bile duct hyperplasia, necrosis, acute and chronic inflammation, extramedullary hematopoiesis, periportal fibrosis, fatty change, glycogen accumulation.
- Kidney: Tubular basophilia, hyaline droplet degeneration, casts, tubular necrosis.
- Spleen: Lymphoid hyperplasia/atrophy, extramedullary hematopoiesis
- Lung: Alveolar edema, pneumonia, congestion.
- Heart: myocardial fibrosis.
- Adrenal gland: cortical hypertrophy, cortical vacuolation.
- Skin: Acute and chronic inflammation, acanthosis
Two different image analysis approaches in toxicology:
1) Quantifying histomorpholical changes (usually measuring area or number)
- Cellular hypertrophy/atrophy
- Cell numbers
- Tissue infiltrates (eg. fibrosis)
- Other structural alterations
2) Quantify substances using special stains (usually measuring area and/or intensity)
Examples of quantitative toxicologic pathology